Every gardener understands that in the modern world buying ready-made seedlings will be quite expensive and, moreover, there is no confidence in the quality of these products. That is why all gardeners grow seedlings with their own hands, but when growing eggplant there may be some difficulties due to the fact that the plant needs constant care.
Sowing eggplant seeds for seedlings:
Homemade eggplant varieties
For growing eggplant seedlings at home, it is recommended to opt for early dwarf or semi-dwarf bushes. This is due to their resistance to various diseases.
The most common homemade varieties of eggplant include the following:
- Afghan red,
Each of these varieties has its own strengths and weaknesses.
The most popular varieties of eggplant:
To date, there are five stages of growing eggplant seedlings, each of which has its own characteristics:
- Selection of a suitable plant variety, which takes into account the ripening period, disease resistance, care requirements and the growing process itself.
- Sowing seeds and their pre-treatment in manganese solution.
- Preparing the soil for seedlings and maintaining the required temperature and humidity indicators. The soil must be saturated with useful microelements.
- Planting seedlings in open soil.
- Caring for plants to direct harvest, which includes regular watering with warm water, loosening the soil, weeding from weeds, as well as timely fertilizer.
Proper sowing of eggplants:
Ways to grow on the window
There are two ways to grow eggplant seedlings on the window:
- Rearing In the autumn, shrubs with eggplants, which still have an ovary, are transplanted into a container with a volume of about 5 liters. The soil is thoroughly rammed and irrigated, excess stems are removed, after which the plants are placed on the window. Until such time as the plant is fully acclimatized, it must be periodically sprayed. The rearing period is 1 to 3 months,
- Growing from seed. From the total seed mass, those that have been dried or very weak are removed. The ideal solution would be to collect seeds from last year's harvest. To do this, soft fruits are cut into several longitudinal parts, and then seeds are extracted with a tablespoon. After that, the seeds are carefully dried and disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate. Seeds are wrapped in wet material and remain in it until germination. After that, the seedlings are planted in pots, and the container is placed on the window.
Waiting for the harvest
After transplanting the seedlings into the open soil, it is necessary to start regular watering from the beginning of May. For slow fruit set, it is recommended to use artificial pollination. Particular importance should also be given to temperature indicators and if it is very hot outside, then cover the plants from direct sunlight.
Eggplant in a private house
If there is enough space in the house, gardeners can grow eggplants throughout the year. In such cases, the plants are located on the windowsills.
When grown in a private house, the plants should be provided with everything necessary, in particular, regular irrigation using only warm water and periodic top-dressings using various mineral fertilizers. Do not forget about the constant loosening of the soil, with hilling of basal legs.
Reliable methods of sowing eggplant:
As for growing eggplants in greenhouse conditions, it is imperative to irrigate the plant with warm water, feed them with mineral complexes, loosen the soil and observe the temperature regime, both during the day and at night.
The main diseases from which eggplant seedlings suffer are the following:
- Fusarium wilt,
- Mosaic leaves.
As a treatment regimen for each individual disease, various methods are used, for example, to combat plant phytophthora should be sprayed with preparations containing copper sulphate. As a preventive measure in the fight against mosaic and spotting, it is recommended to regularly wipe the leaves of plants with skim milk.
When growing eggplants, problems can occur with the following pests:
- Spider mite,
- Orange aphid.
Feeding eggplants with various fertilizers, during the growing season should be carried out once every few weeks, using special mineral fertilizers. And during the fruiting period it is recommended to use nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer, therefore, the best solution is the use of mullein infusions.
Feed nutrients should be carried out directly during the growing season. In the future, the procedure can be repeated several times in order to ensure that the seedlings grow fast enough. This method is a practical guarantee that in fact the seedlings will give a high-quality and rich harvest.
When planting eggplants for seedlings:
Sowing eggplant seeds for seedlings: the secrets
For more information, refer to other useful materials for growing, as well as caring for eggplant seedlings. In particular, articles that are associated with various methods of growing in snails or toilet paper, peat tablets. Do not forget about the features of the crops, based on the lunar calendar. Many are also interested in the characteristics of growing eggplant seedlings in many other regions of the country.
The commitment to the warmth of the culture was the reason for cultivating eggplants from seeds at home by means of seedlings. The first thing is accepted for the preparation of the soil.
For planting seed requires a soil mixture, prepare it in a special way. Of course, if you plan to plant an eggplant in a snail, in which the earth is not considered at all. The composition involves the inclusion of 1 hour of cleaned and washed sand, 1 hour of turf land, 2 hours of high-quality humus. After mixing all the ingredients per bucket, ash (2 tablespoons), superphosphate (60 g) is added. And once again mixed thoroughly.
When using sand from the street or, for example, from a sandbox, it is necessarily treated with boiling water, pouring and steaming for a quarter of an hour. This is done in order to avoid the appearance of characteristic diseases in plants (black leg, for example).
The optimal period is the last decade of February, when there is a view to growing eggplants in Siberia or in mid-latitudes. In a particular area, the dates are slightly shifted to either side. Recommended to view the article: When to sow eggplants for seedlings?
The selection of planting material and the preparation of seeds
Since it is not easy to grow eggplants in Siberia, varieties are selected with early terms of ripening. For example, Bagheera, Robin Hood, Black Handsome, Nutcracker, Vera and others. When choosing a variety, they look at such an indicator as zoning by the light zone. For each region it has a numerical designation, for example, for many regions of Siberia it is III, and for the Perm Region it is II, etc.
Such a process as the cultivation of eggplants from seeds, occurs with the initial soaking and germination of seeds. Next, germinated seeds are planted in separate containers. In the absence of such a container, the landing is made in containers with bumpers not lower than 12 cm.Seeds are laid in the pits (up to 0.5 cm in depth), between bushes they are kept 10 cm in rows, the steps between the rows are approximately 5 cm.
After the planting of pepper and eggplant is completed, the containers are covered on top with films. When pecking the first sprouts from the film, they are disposed of, and the tanks are rearranged to where there is better lighting and more heat. At the very beginning of watering is absent, the ground is moistened 3 days later. And then watering is done every 5 days, preventing excessive drying of the earth.
In addition, eggplant seedlings do not like drafts. Therefore, it is not worth keeping it in a room with a clear ventilation of air; it is better to put the capacity with seedlings in another place.
Hardening of seedlings in front of the street
Proper cultivation of eggplant and care includes one of the activities aimed at hardening young plants before planting them on a regular bed. They do this 30 days before disembarking, when the thermometer mark on the street is set at a bar 15 degrees and higher, there is no strong wind. Plants in containers are transferred to the street (to the balcony if available). The time spent in the fresh air increases each time. So shoots are accustomed to outdoor growing conditions.
Since it is also quite possible to grow eggplants at home, it is still recommended to do this only as a last resort - in the absence of the possibility of planting seedlings in a greenhouse or greenhouse.
For which it makes sense to buy low-growing or medium-sized varieties (Dwarf Early-921, Lolita, Universal, Solaris, etc.) and initially grow only seedlings. It is recommended to put containers with seedlings on the windowsill of a warm room on the 15th of February, and the plants should already have a dense stem with 5-6 leaves, a root system. When choosing windows, they are oriented to the south or south-west sides. On an unheated balcony or veranda, seedlings are placed no earlier than May (depending on the climate of the region). The best temperature mark for the development of eggplant - 23-28 degrees. At temperatures below 15 degrees plants stop growing.
Plants with 5 leaves are placed in individual pots with a diameter of 16 cm. Biogrunt is the most suitable substrate for home cultivation. To do this, they drop a humus mixture in the garden or a soil for flower crops.
For the best survival of seedlings substrate moisturize before planting. The plants are subsequently watered abundantly, constantly, mostly in the evening.
The soil under the bushes all the time should be moist. If the plant lacks water, eggplant gets rid of flowers. However, it is also not necessary to water the culture with excess. Waterlogging can turn into unpleasant diseases. Feeding is carried out after 10-15 days. As a means, liquid concentrates and universal dry fertilizers in granules can be used. For example, means Rainbow.
With increased growth of the upper part of the side processes pinching is performed. In room conditions, the set of fruits with eggplants is not always eager.
To help plants with fruit formation, they are artificially pollinated with a brush.
Selection of landing site and soil preparation
The simultaneous growth of eggplants under one cover with peppers or tomatoes is allowed. The main thing - to provide the correct scheme of placement of plants in which long saplings would not take light from undersized. The place for the production of the greenhouse is chosen at the place of the site, which is illuminated by the sun for a long time during the day.
Competent care of the culture involves the preparation of the soil. Culture takes root easily on loamy light or sandy lands. Not suitable for eggplant clay and acidic soils. The best predecessors are recognized melons, beans.
Heavy land types are mixed with sand, peat, or submerged sawdust. Why bring them in the amount of 1 bucket per square meter. land area.Soil digging deep, and then loosened. Before it is sprinkled with ashes (approximately 2 cups per square meter), potassium, superphosphate, ammonium nitrate (1 table.l of each substance per square meter).
Before planting seedlings, it is recommended to shed the soil with a solution with a mullein (0.5 liters of money for a bucket of water). Watered in a volume of 3 liters per square meter. It is not recommended to fertilize the soil with nitrogen supplements and manure before planting, as this will have a bad effect on fruiting. Plants from this will begin to strenuously build leaf mass.
After planting seedlings on the ground, it is recommended to impose mulch under them. On the ground, the harvest of eggplants is much more abundant. This is done mainly to maintain an even layer of moisture in the soil. No other way will help to save water in the ground so effectively. Mulching is carried out by means of a thick layer of grass, sawdust, straw, or compositions mixed with these means. The mulch will allow to remain a bed with an eggplant wet for a very long time, without negating the efforts of abundant watering.
Forming crown bushes
Tall shrubs can be formed by shortening shoots. To do this, cut off the stepchildren with no ovaries and leaves, pritenyayuschih fruit. Do this: when the plant reaches a length of 30 cm, pinch the top. If the eggplant intensively releases shoots on the sides, keep 2 of the most powerful stepchildren. If they also give new branches, leave the most powerful branch, and the rest is shortened after the first tying.
On low-growing plants do not perform the molding, they cut off the foliage and stepchildren below the branching on the common stem. 2-3 branches are left above the branching site.
How to grow eggplants from seeds is now clear. It is only important not to hurry with the movement of landings on the street until the air warms up well (the temperature will not be below +18 degrees). Garden beds are made warm, zamulcirovannymi, fertile. Only under such conditions, the harvest of blue ones will definitely please. See also the article: Hot Pepper - recommendations for choosing seeds for planting.
Preparation of tanks and soil
For the cultivation of eggplants, given their powerful plant, the necessary capacity (bucket, tub, pot) with a capacity of at least 5 liters for the normal development of the root system. Eggplant does not like replanting. Therefore, the tank should be used as soon as possible for sowing seeds and further growth throughout the growing season.
The soil for eggplants must meet the requirements for growing any other vegetable crop - be light, breathable, fertile.
The best option is to buy a mixture of "for vegetables". When self-drafting can be used in equal proportions sheet (sod) land, lowland peat, sand and humus (compost). For better retention of moisture in the soil and creating airiness, you can add perlite or vermiculite instead of peat to the mixture.
Land brought from the dacha or taken in nature must be thoroughly disinfected over the steam for 30 minutes, scattering on a sieve with a layer of 5-7 cm. The procedure is troublesome but necessary. Eggplant is very capricious and prone to seedling diseases.
Eggplant seeds in shape and size resemble tomato seeds, only a darker brown. The principle of their processing is typical for preplant treatment of seeds of any plant - preliminary disinfection in an aqueous solution of potassium permanganate (1: 1000), or treatment of seed germination with stimulants (humanum sodium, epine, agat-25, immunocytophyte), which also disinfect the seeds. After processing, the seeds are washed in water and placed in a gauze napkin on a saucer with water. Care must be taken to ensure that the cloth is wet and, at the same time, not fully submerged. Seeds must breathe.
After the seeds have been pricked, they are planted in previously prepared containers with ground for 2-3 seeds per pot. Planting tank is moistened with water from the sprayer and covered with plastic wrap with holes, made with a needle, for germination. Air temperature should not be below +25 ° C. After the emergence of shoots choose the most powerful sprout. The rest is removed from the root.
Eggplant in the process of growth is prone to damage by pests and diseases. Infection, when grown on a balcony, with the Colorado potato beetle is unlikely. But the spider mite is a phenomenon quite common in home gardeners. Therefore, if eggplant is grown on a balcony next to other plants, it is necessary to monitor their condition and timely deal with the pest. Eggplants are also susceptible to dry rot, late blight and wilt diseases.
For eggplants, it is crucial that during the growing season the temperature of the air on the balcony should not be below +25 ° C during the day and +17 ° C at night. Also eggplant is very picky about the water temperature when watering. It must be room (+ 22-25 ° C) and preferably separated.
During the growing season, the plant needs regular fertilizing with organic and mineral fertilizers and trace elements.
It is desirable at the beginning of flowering to process (spray) the plants with ovary stimulants (“Sprout”, “Bud”).
During the growth of eggplants, it is necessary to monitor the acidity of the soil. It should be within 5.5 pH. When shifting to the acidic side - to make wood ash or hydrated lime-fluff. The introduction of ground shell chicken eggs is not recommended. First, it is rather difficult to grind the shells into fine powder, even in grinders or electric mixers. Secondly, the film lining the eggs from the inside - when wet, it certainly gives mold. And finally, if it is the shell of raw eggs, there is a high risk of infection of the soil and of itself, beloved, by the causative agent of salmonellosis, which reproduces well in moist, warm earth.
The second condition for normal growth and fruiting is the length of daylight hours. Eggplant is a typical representative of subtropical flora. For the places of its native growth, a 12-hour light day is characteristic. In mid-latitudes, the length of the day during the summer months is much longer. Therefore, an eggplant can, at the very peak of growth - in June-July - stop its development and begin to bloom and bear fruit only in August-September, when the length of daylight hours is reduced for the one it is used to. The only trouble is that in these months it becomes already cold for the normal development of the plant. This is one of the difficulties of growing eggplant on the balcony.
Growing eggplants at home - on the balcony or windowsill, you should remember that if in the summer months eggplant suffers from excess sunlight, then in winter and spring - from its lack. Therefore, from the moment of emergence of shoots to the end of May, it is necessary to organize artificial lighting of young plants. Either LED lamps with a color temperature of 5400 K or fluorescent lamps in a combination of 2 warm light + 1 cold daylight are used. Lamp power 40 watts. When placed at 25-30 cm above the tops of the plants, they give a luminous flux of 140-150 Lux, which is quite enough for the normal development of the plant. Recoloring should last 12 hours a day.
To grow eggplants on the balcony even the most dwarf and early ripening varieties is a job only for those who are very keen on exotic plants and lovers, for whom it is not so much the crop received from the plant that the principle of the ability to grow an unusual plant. In view of the infertility of home-grown eggplants, this occupation is of no practical importance. Moreover, during their mass ripening in the southern regions of Russia and our Central Asian neighbors the prices for this vegetable crop are very low.
Presowing seed treatment
I usually, sowing edible crops for seedlings, spend seed disinfection with hydrogen peroxide solution. I add 3 ml of peroxide to 100 ml of water, heat the mixture to 40 ° C and soak the seeds for 10 min. I spend the processing just before sowing.
For seed disinfection, I use hydrogen peroxide solution. Photo from atmagro.ru
But each gardener chooses the technology of pre-seed preparation. And in order to decide how to process the seeds, you need to know what the meaning of this or that method is, for which, for example, stratification is carried out (keeping at a low temperature), warming up, processing with special preparations, which seeds this or that procedure is required for, and which - is contraindicated. All this is written competently, in detail and clearly in an article on the presowing preparation of seeds.
I will not recommend specific dates for sowing eggplants for seedlings: everyone has different climate and conditions, which means that they should be chosen according to their terms. But I hasten to rejoice you: now everyone can independently calculate the sowing time as accurately as possible. Even for experienced gardeners, practical, proven advice, valuable advice, and most importantly, the exact formula for calculating the timing of planting vegetable crops is a real find. Is it not: if you sow early - the seedlings outgrow, if you sow late - you will miss the favorable time for its adaptation after disembarkation. Knowing how to correctly calculate the time of sowing seeds for seedlings, we reduce the risk of error to a minimum.
It is advisable to calculate the time of planting seedlings independently. Photo from teplica-exp.ru
Knowing how to correctly calculate the time of sowing seeds for seedlings, we reduce the risk of error to a minimum. And if you take advice from the material When planting vegetable seedlings in the ground and in the greenhouse, it will be almost reduced to zero.
Cooking soil mix
General requirements for soil for sowing eggplants: it must be fertile, light, loose and close to neutral in pH. Nothing new, right?
Components for soil mixtures
I take in equal parts the usual land from the garden (I have fertile black soil), ready soil for seedlings, sand. Last year I tried to add vermiculite for the first time - the result is simply excellent, I included it in the obligatory component of the soil mixture for any kind of plants. I like this combination of ingredients, and you can use any other composition - the main thing is that the prepared mixture meets the general requirements.
What we sow-plant?
I sow in 50 ml plastic cassettes, then I roll into a larger container. In general, there are a great number of tanks for seedlings, you can choose to your taste.
We fill the cassettes with soil
If you have not yet decided which option is preferable, I recommend this review, which describes the advantages and disadvantages of different types of packaging for seedlings, as well as recommendations for the manufacture of planting containers with their own hands from scrap materials.
Fill the prepared containers with the mixture, moisten it. I once read in an old magazine a tip: moisten the soil for seedlings with melt water. The author cited the following arguments in favor of such a method: in melt water, an ideally correct crystal lattice, a short-term exposure to cold stimulates the growth and vitality of plants, making them less susceptible to diseases. We have snow at the time of sowing is not always available, but, if possible, I use it to moisten the soil.
Moisturize the ground with snow melt water
And you know, it really works: “snow” seedlings are much stronger and more resistant, it is easier to tolerate transplanting than that which I pour with rainwater.
Important: it is possible to use snow only with non-sprouted seeds, if pre-sowing germination has been carried out, and sprouts have already appeared, the ground should be heated to +25 before planting. + 28 ° C.
Let's go back to the sowing process.
In 1 cell - 1 seed
In each cell (on a slightly compacted bed) I put 1 seed, sprinkle it on top of 0.5 cm of soil, which I also moisten. Then I cover it with a film and put it in a warm place. Until the seeds have germinated, they do not need light and oxygen, the main thing is that it is warm. The ideal temperature during this period is +25. + 28 ° C.
Important: do not sow different varieties in one cassette - the germination time of them can vary greatly, and it is possible that the seedlings of one variety have already sprouted, they need to be freed from the film and lower the temperature, and the seeds of another are still in the process of germination - what then? It is better to sow in several containers - each grade separately.
Eggplant seedlings require good care.
Eggplant seedlings need good care But nothing super difficult to do. What you need to pay special attention to:
As soon as sprouts appeared, the film should be removed and the air temperature in the room should be lowered. In the first week I keep +16 during the day. + 17 ° С, at night +13. + 14 ° C, such conditions are favorable for the development of the root system. Then the temperature needs to be raised again to +25. + 27 ° C during the day and +13. + 14 ° C at night. The difference in the value of day and night temperatures is very important for seedlings: creating an imitation of natural conditions, we temper it.
To seedlings to be strong, observe the temperature regime. Photo from mil-sad.ru
When landing in open ground, she will experience less stress and easier to get accustomed.
Water temperature for irrigation should not be lower than the air temperature in the room. It is better to moisten the soil from the sprayer in order not to wash the seeds or not to bare the root system. Do not let the soil dry out: eggplants are extremely sensitive to the lack of moisture in the soil. But do not fill - it is perhaps even worse.
Ground moisture should be normal. Photos from medicalmarijuana.com
The best water for irrigation is rainwater; if it is not there, defend the tap 24 hours.
Natural growth is not enough for normal growth and development of seedlings; If there are fitolamps - great, if not - well, what can you do, we light the seedlings with ordinary fluorescent lamps. I light up 12 hours a day, from 7-00 to 19-00, the distance from the lamp to the plants is at least 50 cm.
Eggplant seedlings will need additional lighting. Photo from johncow.us
What threatens the lack of lighting: sprouts drawn out, become pale, weak. Such seedlings are often affected by diseases and die when disembarking in open ground.
I don’t feed up eggplants, I’m satisfied with its quality, so I don’t see any sense in fertilizing. But, if there is a need, additional feeding is needed:
- first dressing: without picking - on the 7-10 day after emergence of shoots, using the picking - after 10-12 days after its holding, a fertilizer with a high phosphorus content is used, which stimulates the formation of the root system (1 tbsp of Crystal Yellow per 10 liters of water),
- subsequent feeding: with an interval of 7-10 days to stimulate the growing season (Crystalon Special).
All dressings need to be combined with watering.
The reward for labor is good seedlings. Photo from atmagro.ru
If everything is done correctly, then in 50-70 days after the emergence of shoots, we have an excellent seedling of eggplants of our own production ready for planting into the ground.
Do you grow eggplants by seedlings? It would be interesting to talk with those who use picks or grow seedlings without lighting them - are these methods justified in practice?
- Read all comments from the beginning:
Good afternoon, Lyudmila!
Planted in one sheltered bed length of 9 meters width of 1.5 meters, about six varieties of eggplant including white varieties, did not observe pollination.
Can you please tell what feedings can you replace with Crystal? We only sell liquid for indoor flowers, in Yellow and Special not.
Hello everybody! To begin, I congratulate everyone on the new year 2017, on the new summer-garden year. It will take another couple or two weeks, and the new planting season will begin.
I live in Siberia, in Novosibirsk. And though, from the point of view of geography, this is southern Siberia, but nevertheless, the key word here is “Siberia”, and not “southern”! Since this post is about eggplants, I’ll tell you about my experience in growing these capriculums. But I have little experience, only 2 times I grew them myself. But still, there is something to compare, because both times were very different from the others. And the very first time (in 2010) I did not grow seedlings myself, my colleague gave me a present at work.
That year we first made “warm beds”: the husband made 3 wooden boxes, scattered 2 compost piles in them. In one they planted 4 varieties of carrots (the harvest was sooo impressive!), In the other onions, and in the third they planted donated eggplants. There were 4 varieties: one with round fruits, two ordinary, and one with white. The names of the varieties do not remember.
Eggplants grew well. It was a lot of green mass, but the harvest is not particularly pleased. Only the very first fruit of a circular fruit grew to the envy of all its neighbors. Almost the size of my 4 year old grandson. The remaining fruits were small and they were few.
I grew eggplants from my own seedlings in the last 2 years: in 2015 and 2016.
In 2015, on the advice of my colleague, I bought 4 varieties: Diamond, Vera, and a couple more that I don’t remember anymore ... They are all undersized and early ripening. Sowed them in April, because stretched out with deadlines. They ascended well, but as they grew, much was lost, especially the variety Vera. By the time of disembarkation, there are only 3 roots left. Because They stood with me, along with other bloody ones, then they got the light from the backlight. My windows face north, so I highlight all the seedlings. True, I do not turn on the lamp for a day, but closer to evening.
In the OG I landed them under cover in the second half of June (she covered the film with arcs). A few days after planting ALL the eggplants threw off the leaves. As it turned out later, this happened not only for me, but for many. After that, they stood naked for a long time, then began to grow leaves, and bloomed only in the second half of July. Summer that year was not very good. That rain, the heat. And the harvest began to start only at the end of the season. Therefore, in October, we had to tear them up with tears in our eyes along with a large number of small eggplants. But I collected them all and roasted them.
After that, I decided to “engage” with them, but in 2016 I still could not resist and sowed several varieties again: the remains of Almaz and Vera, and a Japanese dwarf to them. I sowed them on March 3, all went up on March 12-13. March 24, transplanted them into bigger cups. Of the 7 sown, 7 were preserved. Yap Krlika., 5 pcs_Almaz, and 2 pcs. Faith (again he was the most problematic).
Just as in 2015, they stood under the light, fed them a couple of humate a couple of times. In growth, they went well, but grew to 10-12 cm and got up a dead stake! Everything! Then they did not want to grow!
In the OG I landed them in June. The 2016 season we started early. Spring was early and warm. For them (and for the tomato too) a warm garden bed was made from a compost pile. After disembarking, I covered them with spunbond. After some time, eggplants went to growth. At the same time they are overgrown with quinoa, the seeds of which were in abundance in compost. But I was convinced that it was good for them, because I often did not have time at that time in the country, and the quinoa served as a kind of mulching and retained moisture in the soil. When she was almost the same height as the eggplants, I pulled her out and laid her around. Spanbond I cleaned in the second half of June. The summer was very warm and the eggplants quickly grew. Periodically, I removed the lower drying leaves and stepchildren. We took the first harvest in the second half of July, which is quite early for Siberia. By yield, the most productive was Yap. Dwarf. Almost every day we tore off several pieces, fried them, used them in salads, etc. The season we ended last year quite early. In September, the heat was up to +30, and then it became very cold and I had to clean everything at the end of September. On a few bushes were still not tall blue. Of course, they didn’t have enough for preparations (yes, I didn’t count on it too much), but ate them for several more weeks.
BecauseI have a little space for the garden, and the number of roots of each vegetable is limited. For me the main thing is to be able to eat them during the season. And I don’t have the task to spin-prepare for the winter.
Today I have bought a couple of new varieties for myself, as well as some remnants of Y. Karlik seeds. I'm going to experiment and sow them at different times with a difference of 2 weeks.
Somehow like this…
April 2016 month seedling
under the spanboard
In collaboration with the quinoa
Tell me, please, because of what eggplant sprouts can wilt. Illuminated, not flooded.
- Autumn transplanted grown in open ground, low bushes on which the ovary remained in pots of not less than 5 liters and resettled them in an apartment.
- The soil in the pot ram toward the walls. Well watered. Cut off the extra stems and leaves, put on a sill protected from drafts.
- Until the plant takes root, it is regularly sprayed and watered.
- Next, cultivated as room eggplant grown seedlings.
- Growing continue 1-3 months.
Growing eggplant seeds from home
- Conduct culling dried, damaged, small seeds.
- For own seed fund select fully ripened soft fruits. Cut into several longitudinal parts. A tablespoon of carefully removed the seeds. Dried.
- Uncoated Seeds must be sanitized. To do this, prepare a weak solution of potassium permanganate and pickle seeds in it for 20-30 minutes.
- Wrap the seed in a damp cloth.. Leave to germinate in a warm place.
The soil. Prepare a soil for planting. Garden land, riding and lowland peat are mixed in equal shares. The mixture is filled with prepared pots, cups. Poured over a pink solution of potassium permanganate. Leave the earth to settle and thicken.
Important! The seedling of this solanaceous culture develops slowly. Calculate landing dates based on the fact that fruits ripen completely in 130-160 days after germination.
Seedling. At a temperature of + 20-25 ° C in advance, the germinated seeds sprout in 3-5 days, unsprouted - in 2 weeks. At lower temperatures, the time of emergence of shoots is increased by 10-15 days.
At emergence of shoots pots put on window sillsfacing south, south-west. The windows are insulated. Under the pots enclose the board, a plastic sheet.
They monitor the humidity and temperature of the soil in pots. Watered with warm water.. When too wet, cold soil seedlings rot. With a lack of moisture withers, dries.
Eggplant afraid of drafts, even a light breeze leads to the death of seedlings. When growing eggplants near heating batteries, they increase the humidity of the air by spraying the bushes from a spray bottle.
If the eggplants were sown in the box, dive.
After the appearance of cotyledon leaves, sprouts with a clod of earth are carefully transplanted into large containers. If the root system is damaged when picking, support the plants with a growth stimulator of Kornevin.
For active growth and laying of ovaries eggplants need to receive light and heat 12-14 hours a day.
Special lamps for doshochivaniya seedlings are fixed at a height of 15-40 cm from the plants.
From January to March, the seedlings are closed with a mini greenhouse. To do this, wire or rails construct a frame and wrapped it with a thick film. In the greenhouse, the temperature is kept at + 20-25 ° С in sunny weather, + 17 ° С on cloudy days, + 14-17 ° С at night.
Eggplant seedlings feed once in 7-10 days any liquid universal fertilizer based on biohumus or diluted bird droppings, mullein, semi-decomposed compost. The last time before transplanting make mineral full fertilizer. Plant nutrition is accompanied by abundant watering.
Pass eggplant seedlings at the age of 70-80 days after the pots are almost completely filled with overgrown roots. For autumn seedlings this is the first decade of March. Select bushes with at least 8 true leaves and 2-3 buds.
Pots for constant growth should be a diameter of 20-25 cm, the depth of the cassettes, boxes 15-20 cm.
Soil for growing adult eggplants are mixed from equal parts of sand, peat, sod land. At the bottom of each tank lay out 5-7 granules of complex fertilizer of the “Ispolin” type, superphosphate to activate the ovaries.
In cassettes, pots, buckets, eggplant bushes are planted in the center, and 25-30 cm are left in the boxes between the plants.
With an insufficient amount of land or in the case of planting a tall variety, the growth of seedlings stops, the roots become brown.
In this case, the plant is transshipped again in containers by 2-3 cm superior to the previous ones, organic fertilizer for tomatoes and eggplant, for example, Senor Tomato are added to the ground.
Top dressing in greenhouse conditions
When growing eggplant greenhouse fertilizer applied at least 3-5 times per season. First, phosphorus-potassium, in the period of active fruiting nitrogen-phosphate.
The first feeding is carried out in 2-3 weeks after transplanting the seedlings, when the roots take root, they will begin to actively absorb nutrients.
If the plants do not bloom well, they are sprayed with a solution of boric acid. To do this, 5 grams of dry matter is dissolved in 5 liters of hot water.
With excessive foliation, excessive build-up of green mass make potassium compounds. Sickly, weak bushes are supported by preparations with a high content of nitrogen.
Eggplant cultivated at home and winter greenhouses susceptible to fusarium wilt, blight, leaf mosaic.
- For the treatment of phytophthora eggplant bushes in the evening sprayed with copper-containing preparations, for example, a solution of blue vitriol (0.2%).
- For the prevention of mosaic, spotting, wipe the eggplant leaves with diluted skim milk.
When growing eggplant at home Whitefly, spider mite, orange aphid. To get rid of insects, plants are treated with neonicotodine insecticides Aktara, Konfidor, Mospilan, which have a systemic effect on plants - penetrate inside, plants accumulate in the juice, feeding on which adults and larvae die.
Garlic extract helps from spider mite. One glass of crushed garlic is diluted in 10 liters of water. Spray the affected leaves twice a week.
Growing eggplants at home, in an apartment, on a balcony is an interesting, but troublesome and unproductive occupation. Greater harvest, at comparable costs, is obtained by growing and winter cultivation of eggplants in heated greenhouses in home gardens.
The most fertile soil for eggplants is loamy or sandy. Not bad they grow on heavier soils, but in this case it will be necessary to apply peat and humus into the soil at the rate of one bucket of each fertilizer per m? plot, as well as the need to "dilute" heavy soil coarse river sand or sawdust.
Growing eggplants in the greenhouse
Planting seedlings in the greenhouse requires compliance with such conditions:
? Seedlings should have 8-9 developed leaves.
? The root system of seedlings should be well developed.
? The seedlings must be at least 20 cm high.
? The age of seedlings planted in the greenhouse is 65-75 days from the moment of emergence.
Three weeks before planting eggplants in the ground for every m? make 4 kg of humus, 60 g of superphosphate, 30 g of ammonium nitrate, 15 g of magnesium sulphate and 30 g of potassium sulphate, after which the beds are dug up, embedding the fertilizer in the soil, and level.
The optimum temperature for growing eggplants in a greenhouse is 28? C, a higher temperature is unacceptable, so the ventilation of the greenhouse should be a regular procedure, especially on hot days. In addition, in hot weather, you need to water the paths in the greenhouse.
To prevent most diseases and to avoid problems with growth, seedlings need to be grown only from high-quality and previously tested seeds. It is worth noting that the seeds treated according to the rules before sowing into the ground is a guarantee of a rich harvest.
The first thing before planting seeds in the ground, you should check the seed for germination. This is done quite simply - you should take 10-12 seeds, put them in room temperature water for 24 hours. After swelling, the seeds are wrapped with a damp cloth for a week. Mandatory conditions during the inspection - monitor the stability of the temperature regime and its maintenance, as well as regular moistening of the tissue. Next, you need to calculate how many seeds sprouted at the end of the procedure. If the number of germinated seeds exceeds half they can be safely used in order to obtain high-quality seedlings. If less than half, it is recommended to change the manufacturer or pick a different grade.
In addition to germination, during the selection of varieties of eggplant, there are a number of parameters that must be reviewed. The first step is to analyze the eggplant ripening period. For an open area it is not recommended to grow late-ripening varieties, since there is a high probability that they will be spoiled by insects or suffer from infections, and as a result, they will not live to maturity. If you are going to grow eggplants at home, then in this case all kinds are suitable.
Next criterion when selecting seeds - yield. In this case, one should not forget that the varieties yielding the highest yields require more attention and careful care both during the period of growth in the open field and during the period of growing seedlings in greenhouses. In order to obtain from various varieties of fertile harvest, there is a need for the presence of soil with a specific composition. If there is no such at the site, it is recommended to choose a variety that is more suitable for these conditions, even at its lower yield.
Plant resistance is also important.. Before planting your chosen variety, it is necessary to study how demanding it is of the fungal flora, the environment, and susceptible to ground diseases. So how to grow it is quite difficult.
The grade quality can be analyzed at the end of the assessment of all the criteria given. It involves a period of time in which vegetables can be without processing, therefore - how much time you have in stock from harvesting to eating it. Often this criterion is reflected in the taste of the fruit. With long storage they may have a bitter taste.
Eggplant Planting Ground
Eggplants need tremendous precision in soil preparation, since these plants are extremely demanding on the composition of the soil. Neutral acidity, fertility and friability are the three main characteristics that the soil should have for sowing. This composition is due to the factthat eggplants love water, however, is surplus, and, as a result, stagnant water in the soil can lead to rotting of the root system. That is why it is extremely important that the excess fluid goes into the soil, and the plant at the same time gets the necessary amount of water for it to live.
Starting from the stage of growing seedlings, plants should be abundantly nourished and timely top dressing, as this affects the fertility of the soil itself and the production of a good harvest. Better uptake of fertilizers and soil microelements, has neutral acidity.The soil mixture can be found in the gardening shop, but to prepare it independently is of higher priority. To create the necessary soil, following all the rules at home, is not particularly difficult. You will need the following components:
- leaf earth
- soil disintegrators.
The first way to prepare a soil mix is to mix river sand, peat and turf in equal proportions. Ingredients must be thoroughly stirred until a homogeneous mass. Next, 15 grams of potassium sulfate, a solution of 20 grams of superphosphate and 10 grams of urea, diluted with 10 liters, and added to the previously obtained mixture. Planting seeds can be made immediately after it dries.
It is necessary to mix in equal quantity: turf, peat, humus. After which you should pour 500 grams of wood ash and 10-12 grams of superphosphate. The mixture will be ready for use immediately after its high-quality mixing. In order to protect eggplant seeds from diseases in the early stages of development, the soil must be disinfected. The most popular methods of soil treatment include:
- steam treatment
- freezing in the freezer,
- roasting in the oven,
- digging with manganese solution.
Planting eggplant seedlings
Usually, the planting time of eggplants for seedlings is from mid-February to mid-March. It should be noted that the seeds should be decontaminated before planting in the prepared soil. For this selected seeds 30 minutes put in a bright pink solution of manganese. If manganese is not available, you can put the seeds in a gauze bag in the water preheated to 50 degrees. At the end of 2-3 minutes is required to hold them in cool water.
Next, you should pour prepared soil into the tank for planting and spill it with warm water. Each seed deepens to a distance of 1-1.5 centimeters. In order for the plants not to interfere with each other's growth and in order to prevent entanglement of their root systems, plant eggplants in different cells in priority. To the air temperature and humidity were stable, you need to cover the container with a film. The temperature, which contributes to the normal growth of eggplant, is 27 degrees Celsius. Before planting seedlings in the ground, it must be hardened, gradually reducing the temperature to 14 degrees Celsius. This procedure allows you to improve immunity to a number of diseases and temperature changes in open space.
Recommendations for watering seedlings
You can water the seedlings:
- water directly in tanks,
- irrigate with a spray bottle.
The advantages of spraying are that the ground is not washed out during this procedure, and therefore the roots do not become bare. The disadvantages include the ability to burn the leaves, which remain moisture, if the air temperature and sun activity is high enough. The way out of the situation will be spraying the plant, without hurting its leaves. In the case of watering directly into the tank itself, you need to evenly distribute the liquid over the entire area. As noted earlier, eggplants do not like both increased moisture and excessive drought, so you need to monitor moderate watering of the soil.
An insufficient amount of light adversely affects plant growth. Subsequently, this can lead to the emergence of various kinds of diseases, wilting of the leaves and the slow flow of vegetative processes. In February and March, the light day is short and the seedlings will not have enough light. Therefore, it is necessary to provide the necessary amount of his own. For this purpose, special fitolamps or fluorescent lamps are used. PThe period of additional lighting will be 9 to 12 hours daily. These lamps are located above the plant at a distance of 50-60 centimeters.
Be sure to be fed eggplant seedlings at home, as these plants are not enough fertilizers that are added to the soil. The first should be carried out already on 10–11 day. It is recommended to choose a fertilizer with a high concentration of phosphorus. Every 2 weeks seedlings in the role of top dressing can be irrigated with yeast solution or infusion of ash. This will positively affect healthy growth.
If plants develop without deviations, top dressing can be avoided until transplanted into the soil on the beds. Each variety of eggplant seedlings has a different growth period, however, on average, the cultivation and full development of one plant, which is ready to be transplanted into the soil, is 60–75 days.
Selection and preparation of seeds
The shelf life (germination) of eggplant seeds is limited to five years, but the best germination is observed in two-year seeds. Which eggplant seeds are the best, the vegetable grower decides on his own. Seed material is desirable to buy in specialized stores. Nurseries or seed centers usually offer seeds that do not need to be prepared for planting. It is desirable to choose zoned varieties. If hybrids, then only the first generation.
To find out the right amount of seed, it is checked for germination. They take 10 seeds, soak them with warm water for a day, spread them on a soft cloth, keep it moist for a week, during which time the sprouts have already proklyut. Germination of more than 50% is considered acceptable. If the seeds were obtained from their crop, they will have to be prepared for sowing. Awaken the material after storage, immersing the gauze bag with seeds in hot water for 3-5 minutes.
Before planting seeds in the ground, they need to be prepared. Preparation consists of hardening, disinfection, processing of growth stimulant, enrichment with minerals. There are several ways to harden the seeds. Most often, during the week before planting, they are kept in a warm room during the day and at night on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. Hardening is necessary so that temperature changes do not destroy future seedlings. But before that, for 25–30 minutes, they are soaked with a pink solution of potassium permanganate or some fungicide for disinfection.
In order to accelerate growth and increase future yield, seeds are soaked for 10–12 hours in a “Epin” or “Zircon” solution, and then dried to flowability.
Soil and capacity
The soil should be light, nutritious, neutral or slightly acidic, retain moisture and pass air to the roots. Eggplant seeds are small, so it should be small. The mixture can be made by mixing turfy soil with humus or compost, add peat, sand, sawdust and wood ash. For disinfection the finished mixture is calcined in the oven or spilled with boiling water. You can add mineral fertilizers. For example, 30 grams of superphosphate, 20 grams of urea, and 15 grams of potassium sulfate are sufficient for 10 liters of soil.
The peculiarity of eggplant is that it does not like transplants, so the best option is to plant it immediately in a large dish, preferably peat, then you don’t have to disturb the roots. For seedlings, cassettes, cups or pots with a diameter of at least 6 cm are used. But the summer residents usually have little space, so cultivation takes place in boxes of 8–10 cm deep, filled with 2/3 of the soil, from which plants are later transplanted into separate containers .
The necessary conditions
Growing eggplant seedlings is warm with enough light and moisture. Seeds germinate at a temperature of + 25 ... + 28 ° C, lighting at this stage is not required. After sprouts appear for 10–12 days, the temperature is reduced to + 18 ... + 20 ° C to allow the root system to develop. Then the air temperature is maintained during the day at + 22 ... + 26 ° C, and at night in the range + 18 ... + 20 ° C.
The technology of growing strong seedlings involves a daylight length of 10–12 hours; if you sow eggplants in February-March, you will not be able to grow them without bleaching.
Eggplants do not need moist air, but seedlings grow well in moist soil. Often it is not necessary to water, but the land should not dry out. The room must be ventilated, but not allowed drafts.
Timing and sowing
Planted plants on the bed can be when the soil warms up to +18 ° C. In the south, this takes place in May, and in the middle lane a month later. Early varieties are planted 45–55 days after emergence of shoots, varieties of medium ripening time — 55–65 days, late varieties — 70–80 days.
Sprouts appear 10–15 days after sowing. So you can determine the time of sowing for each region. It is usually carried out from the end of February to the end of March. Early varieties mature in 85–95 days after emergence of shoots, and late ones - in 150 days. The choice of variety depends on the duration of the summer.
Sowing in boxes is carried out in rows with a distance of 5 cm between the seeds, to a depth of 1.5 cm in the prepared soil. For individual cups and pots, it is advisable to plant 2 seeds, and then pinch off a weak sprout, especially since only one of them can ascend.
Sowing dishes covered with film or glass, put on a warm place. After half the seeds germinate, the film is removed, the dishes are exposed to light, and the air temperature is lowered.
Picking, that is, pinching the main root, hurts eggplants, although some gardeners prefer to correct the roots. Damage to the root can destroy the plant, at best, it will simply weaken it and delay the development by 1-2 weeks. Most often, diving is called plant transplanting into separate pots with a diameter of 13–15 cm. This is done after the appearance of 2-3 leaves. For a day or two, the plant is plentifully watered, then carefully removed it with a clod of earth with a spatula, transferred to the same ground, buried until the cotyledon leaves.
After transplantation, the air temperature is slightly increased (up to +26 ° C) to facilitate adaptation to new conditions, and after a week it is lowered again to prevent seedlings from stretching too much.
Watering and feeding
Watered seedlings with warm settled water as needed, after irrigation, the soil is loosened to a depth of 1–1.5 cm, mulched with dry sand or sawdust. Do it better in the morning. Waterlogging can lead to blackleg disease. You can sprinkle the earth with ashes, bypassing the leaves and stems - this will be feeding along with the prevention of diseases.
Every two weeks to the water advised to add antifungal drugs. 2 weeks after transplantation, plants are usually fed with a solution of urea and superphosphate (10 and 30 g, respectively, per 10 liters of water). 1.5 weeks before planting the bushes in the garden can be fed fertilizer "Kemira Universal".
Landing in the ground
Eggplant from seeds can grow indoors before the appearance of buds, and even flowers (they do not need to be pollinated for the formation of ovaries); when planted in the ground, the plant should have from 8 to 12 leaflets. They need to be hardened before relocating to the garden. 2 weeks before planting, the seedlings are placed for a short time in conditions with low temperature, then they are taken out outside, gradually accustoming not only to fresh air, but also to sunlight.
The bed is prepared in the autumn, considering the compatibility of eggplants with other cultures. It is undesirable close proximity to potatoes, peppers, tomatoes (they are also bad predecessors).
Usually, the wells are prepared for planting, leaving 30 cm between them, and 60 cm between rows. They are made several centimeters deeper than a pot, they are watered well. You can prepare a solution of 10 liters of water and 300-400 grams of slurry, pour 1-1.5 liters into each well.Here, in this liquid soil, plants are placed along with a clod of earth from a pot, sprinkled with soil, slightly compacted, mulched with peat, sand or dry earth. Mulch will help retain moisture. The first couple of weeks you need to take care so that the earth remains wet.
Soil mix preparation
In order to start planting seeds, it is necessary to prepare a special soil mixture for eggplants, this is done as follows: 1 part of washed clean sand, 1 part of sod land, and 2 parts of good humus. Further on 1 bucket of such a soil mixture is added 2 tbsp. ash and 60 g. superphosphate mixture must be thoroughly mixed.
It should be warned that if for such a mixture, you use sand, for example, from a sandbox in the yard, you should definitely spill it with very hot water and steam for 15-20 minutes. It is necessary to do this, as the sand can be infected with all sorts of diseases, for example the same "black leg". It is best to sow eggplants in February (this is good for the central part of Russia). It was noticed that when the seedlings were planted in the soil at the age of 70-80 days from the date of sowing, the yield of such eggplant was better than others.
In order to germinate eggplant seeds, they need to be immersed in water for 3 to 5 minutes, with an approximate temperature of +40? ... + 50? С. After that, the water from the seeds must be drained, the seeds themselves must be wrapped in wet matter, and left them there for 5-7 days at a temperature of +30? ... + 32? seeds. Before the seeds will need to be planted, they must be dried, to a granular state. Eggplant sprouts do not tolerate transplantation, so it’s better to plant them in separate peat pots from the very beginning. Before sprouts appear, it is necessary to withstand a temperature of +24? ... + 25? С. In cases where there are no separate pots, then eggplants can be sown in boxes, the height of which should be no lower than 12 cm.
In order to create the necessary microclimate, pots or boxes (depending on where the planting was performed), it is necessary to cover it with a film. Sowing in the boxes should be done with already germinated seeds, there should be a distance of 10 cm in the rows, the same distance of 10 cm, it is necessary to keep the distance between rows, plant seeds to an approximate depth of 0.5 cm
In order not to stretch out seedlings
When separate sprouts from the ground appear, the film of which was covering the planting container, it is necessary to remove them, and put the pots or boxes as close as possible to the light. Eggplant leaves are quite wide, so you need to ensure that the seedlings do not grow too close to each other, i.e. thickly, this will lead to the fact that the seedlings begin to stretch, and good seedlings will not work. It is very important that the eggplant has a large area for food, the quality of the future harvest will depend on it. It should be borne in mind that when eggplants are in the seedling period, they consume a lot of water, several times more than tomato or pepper seedlings, and eggplant reacts much more to the lack of water too. If watering the eggplant is not regular, it can lead to the fact that buds will begin to fall off. Over the entire period of growing eggplant seedlings, two supplements are made, as for the seedlings of pepper.
Rules for growing eggplants from seeds at home: the choice of variety, when to sow, recommendations for the care of the window, balcony, greenhouse
Cultivation of eggplants has always been considered by gardeners as a kind of test of skill. Heat-loving culture is capricious, picky, requires constant care.
However, the emergence of new varieties and hybrids, modern methods of agricultural technology made it possible to grow eggplant without leaving the apartment.
WHERE TO BUY THE SEEDS OF EAGLE
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Growing eggplant seeds: common problems and their solutions
Eggplants have long received a permanent residence permit in our garden plots. Tastes, usefulness of this member of the family of bouillon is appreciated by most gardening enthusiasts. At the same time, gardeners are well acquainted with the vagaries of a vegetable, its whimsicalness and demanding care. Problems can arise at any stage of cultivation, including during planting and the appearance of the first shoots. Healthy and high-quality seedlings are the key to future harvest. A good start can minimize many further difficulties. Consider the main issues related to the cultivation of eggplant seedlings at the stage of emergence.
The timing of the first shoots
With a well-organized planting and creating comfortable conditions, eggplant seeds germinate 7–10 days after sowing. The rate of germination depends on many factors. The main one is the favorable temperature conditions. Tanks with sown seeds are recommended to be placed in a room with air temperature not lower than +25 o C.
Important! If the temperature ranges from +15 to 18 ° C, then the seeds can sprout, but they will have to wait much longer.
When sowing eggplants should also pay attention to the depth of embedding. If the seed material is placed in the soil more than 1.5–2 cm, then there will be a threat of death of the seedlings. With a favorable outcome, the first shoots will appear much later than the specified period.
The optimal depth of embedding eggplant seeds in the ground - 0.5–1 cm
Why do not sprouts appear
If the seedlings of eggplants did not appear at the appropriate time, then first of all it is necessary to find the cause of this problem in order to prevent the error from recurring. The main causes of seed non-emergence can be several:
- Substandard seeds. Their purchase should be taken very seriously: to purchase only from trusted vendors, be sure to check the shelf life of the product. Eggplant seeds remain viable for 5–6 years, but the fresher the product, the higher the percentage of germination it shows. Experienced gardeners recommend to buy seeds in the shell. They give friendly shoots and do not need preplant treatment.
It is recommended to purchase several varieties of seeds from different manufacturers.
How to accelerate the germination of eggplant seeds
For growing seedlings, eggplant seeds are planted about 75–80 days before the next planting in the ground: 7–10 days are necessary for the seeds to germinate, the time period 65–70 days is considered optimal for transplanting to a permanent place. If for some reason the time of planting is not met, it is better to hedge and take measures to accelerate the germination of seeds. To reduce the risk of unsuccessful sowing, experienced gardeners recommend:
Seeds that remain on the bottom of the tank should be removed and rinsed with clean water.
The application of the method of stimulation reduces the interval from sowing to the first shoots for several days. Most often they use elementary soaking in a solution of a suitable growth stimulant, which is offered by retail chains in a wide range. These are Energen, Epin-extra, Zircon, Novosil, Ribav-extra and others.
Photo gallery: preparations to stimulate the growth of eggplant seeds
Note! Before soaking the seeds in stimulants, it is recommended to hold them in the water for swelling.For these purposes it is better to use not simple, but melting water of room temperature.
To accelerate the emergence of seedlings, you can also use natural growth stimulants:
aloe juice Choose the succulent leaves of the plant and put them in the freezer for freezing for a week. After that, the greens are crushed (without the use of metal objects) and squeeze the juice. Before use, the juice is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 1. In aloe solution, seeds are recommended to be kept for 4–6 hours,
Aloe juice improves seed germination and improves plant immunity
Onion-ash infusion enriches the seeds with essential minerals and trace elements
Honey solution has long been used as an effective growth stimulant.
Important! To stimulate the seedlings use only one of the proposed methods. The exposure time in the growth stimulator should not exceed 8 hours.
The germination of seed germination accelerates the emergence. The most reliable way to carry it in containers with wet sawdust. This material is convenient because fragile roots are not damaged when removed before planting.
Note! If you have chosen to germinate cloth, gauze or cotton pads, then planting seeds into the ground should be carried out immediately after they are turned, without waiting for the roots to grow, which can grow into the fabric and break off when removed.
For germination, stimulated seeds are laid out between the layers of the selected wetted material and placed in a warm place (+ 25–27 degrees). It is necessary to constantly ensure that the material does not dry out. At night, containers can be covered with plastic film. This will create an additional greenhouse effect and prevent the seeds from drying out. During the day cellophane shelter can be removed.
Eggplant seeds will stick on day 5-7 after soaking.
Important! With too much liquid in the pot, the seeds will inevitably die from an abundance of moisture and lack of air!
It is very important to properly water the emerged eggplant shoots. If possible, use for irrigation thawed or rain water heated to room temperature. Water from the tap to defend. Water the seedlings as the soil dries out, usually once a week.
In the room where the seedlings are contained, should not be too dry, because eggplants are southern plants, so they do not like dry air. Air humidity is increased by spraying or installing open containers with water. Periodically air the room, avoiding drafts.
The emerged shoots are watered gently, without washing the soil and not exposing the tender root part of the stem
Important! Excessive moisture is harmful to seedlings, as it contributes to the development of many diseases, including black leg.
When organizing illumination, one should proceed from the fact that a surplus of light to shoots is not terrible, problems arise when it is deficient. It is best to place containers with shoots on window sills facing south. Here the seedlings will receive a sufficient amount of light, and they will not need additional lighting.
Important! When placed on the south side of the window, it is recommended to tighten it with gauze, which will save young plants from sunburn.
On the windowsills of the eastern and western windows, seedlings will have to be additionally illuminated with fluorescent lights. It is better not to place eggplant seedlings on the northern windowsills. Lack of illumination will lead to stretching of the seedlings and diseases.
Eggplants need a lot of light to grow.
Note! Every 2–3 days, unroll the containers with seedlings on the windowsill so that all the sprouts are evenly lit and receive a sufficient amount of light and solar heat.
Competent top dressing
Well-filled soil for sowing seeds can provide small seedlings with enough nutrients. If the seedlings of eggplants have green velvety leaves, they are strong and stocky, then excess dressing can only harm them: it will stimulate too active growth and early budding. Insufficiently strong shoots can be fed one week after the appearance of phosphate fertilizers (25 g per 10 liters of water), which will have a beneficial effect on the growth of the seedling's root system.
Fertilizing is carried out with fertilizers diluted in water and only after watering.
When the first true leaves appear, the seedlings can be fed with nitrogen-potassium fertilizers, which will stimulate the growth of plants and protect them from most diseases:
Pulling out eggplant seedlings: elimination and prevention
High-quality and healthy shoots of eggplants should look squat and strong. If the seedlings are stretched, you first need to establish the reason why this happened. All problems are concentrated in the influence of external factors, since neither pests nor diseases of eggplant do not provoke pulling out seedlings. Most often, seedlings are pulled out due to violation of the rules of lighting, temperature, irrigation and fertilizing, as well as thickened crops.
Extraction of seedlings is not a disease, but it entails the most unpleasant consequences.
Note! Pulling seedlings of eggplants can be a consequence of one of the listed reasons, and their combination.
Growing eggplants in Belarus
Homeland "blue", as people often called handsome eggplant, is India. Now this culture can be found almost everywhere. It is grown not only in countries with a warm climate, but also in regions with very moderate temperatures. This is a close relative of potatoes and tomatoes, that is, it belongs to the family of the nightshade.
Eggplant plants are erect or sprawling and can reach a height of 1.5 m, leaves and stems can be from green to purple in color. The root system is very powerful and penetrates to a depth of 1.5 m. The plant has bisexual flowers with a purple halo. They can be both single and collected in a brush. Fertilization occurs by selfing. There is a wide variety of fruit shapes (berries): flattened, spherical, cylindrical. Their color is from white to almost black. The size and weight of the fruits, which on each plant can be up to 15 pieces, also varies within wide limits and reaches 500 g.
In the conditions of Belarus it is impossible to successfully grow eggplants without the timely preparation of high-quality seedlings. The seedling period for this plant is 60-70 days. If we consider that the seeds germinate 7-12 days, then the sowing should be carried out no later than the first decade of March. Better suited for growing in our conditions of early ripening varieties. They begin technical maturity in 85-100 days. Physiological maturity occurs only after 130 days. In late-ripening varieties, this period is much longer.
Seeds are sown in the nutrient mixture of turf land, humus and peat with the addition of wood ash and superphosphate. Sawdust can be added to make the mixture more loose. Seeding is carried out in boxes to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. The distance between the seeds should be made 2-3 cm. It is even better to plant the crops in cassettes or cups.
Container after sowing, it is necessary to cover the film and put in a warm place. When seeds germinate, the optimum temperature is 25-30 ° C. At temperatures below 13 ° C seeds do not germinate. During germination should ensure that the soil does not dry out. To maintain moisture, watering is carried out with warm water. Immediately after the emergence of shoots, the boxes are transferred to a bright place, but at first it is necessary to protect the plants from direct sunlight. For the first week, to prevent the seedlings from pulling out, the temperature must be maintained at 14-16 ° C.In the future, the daily temperature is adjusted to 18-25 ° C. The temperature at night should be 16-17 ° C. Watering is carried out as needed (1-2 times a week) and only with warm water. Prevent over-wetting of the ground in order to prevent the “black leg”. Loosen regularly.
For the best development of plants, it is desirable to carry out additional lighting of seedlings. This operation is carried out in such a way that the light period is 12 hours per day.
After the first 2 true leaflets appear, the seedlings grown in the boxes are well watered (2 hours before the dredging) and dive into other containers. The distance between the plants is 4-5 cm. Part of the seedlings do not swoop, but leave the same distance between them as between the picked plants.
Mandatory agropriemom when growing eggplant seedlings should be hardening. It is carried out two weeks before disembarking. During quenching, the temperature should not initially fall below 15 ° C and the duration of exposure to this temperature should not exceed two hours. It is gradually brought to the temperature of the open ground, and the duration of quenching to one day.
Eggplants should not be grown in areas that previously occupied solanaceous crops, namely, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers. It is desirable that the gap between growing the "blue" and other solanaceous in this area was not less than three years. The best precursors for this crop are legumes, cabbage, onions, cucumbers, as well as melons and carrots.
For eggplants, light sandy and sandy, humus-rich soils are better suited. They grow and develop better on soils that are well heated in spring, and also in areas protected from northern winds. It is not suitable for growing heavy, moist soils.
Eggplant responds well to organic fertilizers. It is advisable to make 5-7 kg / m2 of humus. In the autumn, 25-30 g / m2 of superphosphate should be added for plowing, as well as 25-30 g / m2 of potassium sulphate. For spring tillage, 15-20 g / m2 of urea should be applied.
Planting and caring for plants.
Seedlings are planted after the probability of frost has passed and the onset of sufficiently warm weather. By this time, the plants should have a height of 10-12 cm. They should have about 7 true leaves. The planting scheme is 70x30 (40) cm or tape, in which the distance between the rows is 45-50 cm, between the tapes 80-90 cm, and between plants in the row 25-30 cm. Before planting, 2-3 liters should be poured into each well water. For a good survival of watering the plants, repeat several times every 2-3 days.
To create an optimal microclimate and increase crop yields, you can apply the cultivated corn crops. Corn is sown every 10 -15 rows of eggplants three weeks before planting.
Eggplant is very demanding on soil moisture. The lack of moisture affects the growth and development of eggplant. Their growth stops, the fruits fall off and the ovary is formed. Fruits in this case acquire an ugly form. To prevent such consequences, it is necessary to conduct regular irrigation with an interval of 7-12 days. Watering should be carried out so that the soil is soaked to a depth of 30-40 cm, and during fruiting, the depth of getting wet should be about 50 cm.
Before the closure of the plants in the rows, up to five loosening between the rows and the weed in the row are carried out. You should spend up to three fertilizing (the beginning of mass budding, before the mass collection of fruits, after the mass gathering of fruits). 10-30 g / m2 of urea is applied to each top dressing. A good result is the mulching of the soil around the plant with peat.
For larger fruits on the plant should be left up to four stems that develop better. Plants can not tie up and not pinch. When caring for them, it is necessary to remove yellowed leaves and shoots.
In the conditions of Belarus, in order to obtain a guaranteed yield, eggplants should be grown in greenhouses or film shelters. Cultivation technology is almost the same as in the open field. The temperature in the greenhouse should be 22-28 ° C during the day and 20-22 ° C at night.
Great harm to eggplants can cause the Colorado potato beetle, scoop, aphid. They can be exposed to fungus as well as viral diseases. For protection, you can use a variety of drugs that are now commercially available. Colorado potato beetle is best collected by hand.
Eggplants are harvested at the onset of technical ripeness. At this time, the fruits become characteristic of the variety color and size. The flesh becomes quite elastic and without voids. Eggplants are cut with a knife or with the help of a shears with a part of the stem every 5-7 days. With a square meter you can get 3-4 kg purple handsome.